on the activities of the S.U. Umarov Physical-Technical Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan in 2020
In 1964, with the aim of comprehensive development of physical and technical research in the country, solution of fundamental scientific and practical problems, development and implementation of new technologies, training of scientific personnel in the fields of physics, mathematics and engineering was based the S.U. Umarov FTI of the National Academy of Science (hereinafter referred to as the Institute). Since its foundation, the Institute has been working in the areas of nuclear physics research methods, cosmic rays and high energy physics, semiconductor physics, low-temperature condensation physics, spectroscopy, nonlinear coherent optics (quantum electronics), physical acoustics, physical processes in the atmosphere, computer modeling of physical processes and innovative materials, renewable energies, crystal structure research, etc.
In 2020 at the S.U. Umarov Physical and Technical Institute continued research on six topics of the research plan of the institute, covering the following problems:
- nuclear physics research methods;
- cosmic rays and ultrahigh energy physics;
- physics of semiconductors;
- formation and structure of crystals;
- physics of condensed matter at low temperatures;
- coherent and nonlinear optics (quantum electronics);
- study of physical processes in the atmosphere;
- renewable energy sources.
Along with research work, the Institute also trains scientific specialists in doctoral studies (PhD) in the direction 6D060400, consisting of 23 physical specialties and a magistracy at the Institute in the following specialties:
- Solid state physics;
- Theoretical physics.
Also, as part of the curriculum of the Minor Academy of Sciences, students of secondary schools – members of the Physics section of the Minor Academy of Sciences are given theoretical and practical classes.
All directions of the institute’s activity can be described in detail, but in order to get a general idea of the processes of activity, results and achievements of the institute, we provide only a brief summary of the information.
INSTITUTE ACTIVITIES IN 2020:
RESULTS AND ACHIEVEMENTS
1). Publication of scientific results. In 2020, scientists and specialists of the Institute published more than 185 scientific articles and abstracts, of which more than 25 scientific articles were published in prestigious foreign journals.
2). Book publishing. Also, this year the staff of the institute developed and published 3 textbooks, of which 2 were prepared in the state language and one in russian:
- Yuldashev Z.Sh. “Renewable energy sources in the Republic of Tajikistan. Investigation of the energy characteristics of a photovoltaic solar energy converter”. 148 p.
- Kholmurodov F. ” Automatic communication control and notification system”. 260 p.
- Kholmurodov F., Safarov A.Gh., Yarov M.T. ” Physics reference”. 159 p.
3). Development of science. This year, the institute’s staff took part in more than 20 television and radio programs promoting the study of the natural and exact sciences, and more than 35 of their scientific and popular articles were published in the media.
4). International conference. From 09-10 October 2020 in Dushanbe, at the Physical and Technical Institute named after S.U.Umarov National Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan held the VII International Conference “Modern Problems of Physics”. The conference was held in 5 sections in the following areas:
- Theoretical physics, dynamical systems
- Condensed matter, nanotechnology and new materials
- Problems of renewable and non-renewable energy sources
- Cosmic rays, nuclear physics and technology
- Physics of the atmosphere, climate change and water problems
- Medical physics.
More than 100 scientific reports were heard and discussed at the conference, of which more than 30 came from research institutes and universities of the CIS member states, the USA and other foreign countries.
5). International conference of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. This year, during the International Conference “The Contribution of the Leaders of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan to Strengthening Friendship, Good Neighborliness, Trust and Opening New Pages in Strategic Partnership between Uzbeks and Tajiks”, which took place on September 14-15, 2020 in Dushanbe, between the Physical-Technical Institute named after S.U. Umarov National Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan and the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan signed an agreement on scientific cooperation, which provides for joint scientific research in priority areas and contributes to the development of the two countries, including in the field of nuclear physics, theoretical physics, physics of condensable states, optics, quantum electronics, physical and technical problems of energy, application of methods of physical research in medicine, methods of nuclear physics, cosmic light and supernovae, physics of semiconductors and crystal structure, physics of ferroelectrics and dielectrics, spectroscopy.
Information about the beginning of this cooperation was also published in the media of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the tajik language:
– An agreement on scientific cooperation was signed // Ovozi Tojik newspaper in the Republic of Uzbekistan. Date of publication 09/22/2020 (https://ovozitojik.uz/news/view?id=4265).
6). Subject Olympiads. In order to involve young people in the study of physical and technical sciences, the institute organized and conducted 2 republican and city Olympiads.
6.1. March 12, 2020 at the Physical-Technical Institute named after S.U. Umarov, an Olympiad was held for students of higher educational universities of the Republic of Tajikistan in physics to compete for the NAST Cup in the 2019-2020 academic year. The Olympiad was attended by 23 students, including 15 from the Universities of Dushanbe, 3 from the Sogd region, 5 from Khatlon region.
Based on the results of the answers of the participants of the Olympiad, the commission determined the following winners:
- by profile sections: Kholov U.B. – 1st year student of TNU, 1st place; Matrobiyon N.S. – 1st year student of RTSU, 2nd place. For the 3rd place, the commission identified the following students: Ilyosov Sh. – 5th year student of KSU named after N. Khusrav, Kholov K. – 5th year student of KSU named after S. Ayni.
- in non-core sections: Kurbonali Ch. – 5th year student of Khatlon State Medical University, 1st place; Turaev U. – 1st year student of the TTU named after academician M. Osimi, 2nd place. For the 3rd place, the commission identified the following students: Azimov U. – student of the 1st year of study at ATSMU, I. Yusupov – 1st year student of the TTU named after academician M. Osimi.
6.2. November 12-13, 2020 at the Physical-Technical Institute named after S.U. Umarov, an Olympiad was held among schoolchildren of gymnasiums and secondary schools of the city of Dushanbe in physics for the competition for the NAST Cup. 39 schoolchildren took part in the Olympiad. Based on the results of the answers of the participants of the Olympiad, the commission determined the following winners:
- among students of secondary schools: Tojiddinzoda H. – student of the 11th grade of the secondary school №42, 1st place; Khurshedai I. – student of the 10th grade of the SRHK №66, 2nd place. For the 3rd place, the commission identified the following students: Rustamzoda M. – a student of the 11th grade of the secondary school №29, Shoimov Sh. – a student of the 10th grade of the secondary school №55;
- among schoolchildren in literary schools and gymnasiums: A. Yusupov – 11th grade student of LDOU, 1st place; Kalandarov D. – student of the 10th grade LDOU, 2nd place. On the 3rd place, the commission identified the following students: Dustov S. – a student of the 11th grade of the Lyceum of the Moscow State University branch; Nurulloeva Sh. – a student of the 10th grade of the Lyceum of the Moscow State University branch.
7). Cooperation with domestic and foreign scientific institutions. The Institute cooperates with a number of domestic and foreign scientific institutions, including:
- with the laboratory of atmospheric processes of the Main Geophysical Observatory named after A.I. Voeikova, St. Petersburg;
- with the laboratory of aerosol optics of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics named after A.M. Obukhov RAS;
- Resource Center of the Faculty of Geoecology of St. Petersburg University;
- Agreement on scientific and technical cooperation between the Institute of Physical and Technical Problems and Materials Science of the National Academy of Sciences of the Kyrgyz Republic and the Physico-Technical Institute named after S.U. Umarov of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan dated June 15, 2011;
- Memorandum of Cooperation between the Physical-Technical Institute named after S.U. Umarov of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan and LLP “Kazakhstan Scientific and Technical Center for the Development of Housing and Communal Services” dated August 24, 2012. Dushanbe;
- Protocol No. 3964-6-09 / 10 on the implementation of joint research work between the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) and the Physico-Technical Institute named after S.U. Umarov of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan September 4, 2009;
- Agreement on cooperation between the Physico-Technical Institute named after S.U. Umarov of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan and the Eurasian National University named after L.N. Gumilyov dated April 2, 2010 Astana city.
The Institute has valid contracts with the following scientific institutions of the near abroad:
- Protocol on cooperation with the Samara National Research University named after academician S.P. Korolev;
- National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center AERONET Network (USA), collaborator Brent N. Holben, (AERONET Project Head, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center AERONET Network (USA);
- LOA-PHOTONS group Universite des Sciences et Technologies Lille Laboratoire d’Optique Atmospherique Prof. Philippe Goloub (France);
- An agreement on joint work was signed between European HORIZON-2020 and ACTRIS-2;
- Agreements on joint work with NASA, Aeronet Network, Space Research Center named after Goddard (IMA), the laboratory of the optical atmosphere of the University of Science and Technology, Lille (France) continued;
- Continued cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in pursuance of the Treaty on Safeguards and Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (No. 1249 of November 25, 2004) between the IAEA and the Republic of Tajikistan;
- Memorandum with the University of Science and Technology of Kohat, Pakistan;
- Memorandum with the Topi Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Pakistan;
- Agreement on cooperation with the Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology Ghulam Ishak Khan, Pakistan;
- An agreement on joint research was signed between the P.I. S.U. Umarov National Academy of Science and the Institute of Tropospheric Research. Leibniz (Leibzig, Germany) in the framework of the Central Asian DUST Experiment (CADEX) project;
- Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan. Within the framework of scientific research of the created new subdivision – Computing Cluster, calculations of the structure of new innovative materials in the framework of the density functional theory continue.
8). On the status of the Institute “Basic organization of the CIS member states in the field of training scientific personnel in the field of physics and technology.” On February 12-13, 2020 in the city of Minsk, Belarus, a meeting of the expert group was held to agree on projects of basic institutes of the CIS member states in the field of training scientific personnel in the field of physics (P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences) and physical and technical (Physics -Technical Institute named after S. U. Umarov NANT) in the Executive Committee of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Following the meeting, the following decision was made:
- The documents of the meeting were sent to the CIS countries for internal coordination of draft regulations on the basic institutions of the CIS countries in the field of training scientific personnel in the field of physics and on the basic institutions of the CIS countries in the field of training scientific personnel in the field of physical and technical sciences, as well as a draft resolution of the Council CIS foreign ministers;
- In accordance with the established procedure, the draft regulations on the main institutions of the CIS countries in the field of training scientific personnel in the physical sciences and on the main institutions of the CIS countries in the field of training scientific personnel in the physical and technical sciences, as well as the draft resolution of the Council of CIS Foreign Ministers will be submitted for discussion by the Council CIS foreign ministers;
If the institute is granted the status of the basic organization of the institute, it will be possible to conduct training, retraining and advanced training of scientific personnel, exchange information about experience, innovations, methodological support used in this area, solving scientific, methodological and organizational problems, conducting joint research, conferences, international industry and scientific-practical seminars, symposiums and exhibitions. The functions of the base organization also include consideration of draft normative acts for adoption within the CIS, related to the sphere of the base organization, preparation of appropriate conclusions and recommendations for the harmonization of normative acts and the exchange of normative acts.
Recall that at the 6th meeting of the Council for Cooperation in the Field of Fundamental Sciences of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) on October 12, 2018, the National Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan proposed to the S. U. Umarov Physical and Technical Institute to assign the status of “Basic organization of the CIS member states for training scientific personnel in the field of physics and technology. In this regard, the working group proposed to NANT to prepare a draft Regulation on the base organization. The draft Regulation and Resolution of the Council of Foreign Ministers of the CIS prepared by NAST and the Institute on April 15-16, 2019 at a meeting of the Council Working Group (Minsk) were finalized, and the final materials were sent for approval to the Council members. At the Council meeting on November 28, 2019, the Council will consider the final materials of the Working Group, including the Resolution of the Council of CIS Foreign Ministers on granting the Institute the status of a base organization.
9). Scientific expedition “Pamir 2020”. In July of this year (July 10-25), with the participation of IAEA employees (K. Azizshoev, S. Odinaev, M. Shanbiev, Sh.Yu. Aminzhonov) and the Institute Board (F. Shokir, Kh. R. Rakhmonov) Summer expedition. Pamir 2020 has been formed.
In August 2008, an agreement was signed between the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan and the Government of the Russian Federation on the establishment and operation of the Pamir-Chakaltaya International Research Center for joint nuclear physics and astrophysical research of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. Since 2015, a summer expedition has been held annually with the participation of employees of the institute.
This year, for the sixth time, a group of young researchers of the institute conducted research on July 10-25 at Ak-Arhar station as part of a scientific expedition to the Pamir 2020. Within this framework, young scientists, under the guidance of teachers, studied the following scientific issues:
- Location analysis related to gamma, beta and neutron radiation.
- Analysis of the regular volumetric activity of radon-222 (radon) and radon-220 (radon) in space and inside objects.
- Night background analysis of space.
- Collection of representative soil and plant samples for gamma spectrometric analysis.
The research was carried out in the highlands of the Pamirs, in Murghab GBAO at three scientific stations for the registration and study of cosmic rays:
- The base in the Ak-Arhar region, at an altitude of 4360 m, years of construction and foundation – 1971-1975. – the main place of research;
- The base in the Chechekti region, at an altitude of 3860 m., years of construction and foundation – 1944-1946;
- An unfinished base at the Koluch-Kul section, at an altitude of 4270 m, years of construction – 2012-2013.
Thus, this year the questions posed to the members of the expedition have been fully studied, and the tasks have been completed.
It should be noted that the study of radioactivity as radiation of some nuclei and radiation itself as ionizing radiation is a natural phenomenon and a certain amount of it exists in all environments and even inside the human body. That is, ionizing radiation is a constant occurrence and is commonly referred to as ambient background radiation. Ionizing radiation and radioactive substances are effectively used in a wide variety of fields – from energy production to use in medicine, industry and the national economy. The relevance of this issue is that the risk of radioactivity to personnel, the public and the environment must be assessed and controlled during use and throughout the process. It was determined that the radiation background of the Ak-Arkhar site is in the range of 0.06-0.13 μSv / h and is acceptable and does not cause harm and does not have a harmful effect on the human body and the environment. The radiation map of the surveyed territories was created in July 2020 with the allocation of more than 40 points at a distance of 4360-5000 m above sea level.
10). On the application of scientific results and inventions in practice. Д
At the S.U. Umarov Physical-Technical Institute, for 6 years, the nitrogen station continues to operate, providing liquid nitrogen for the needs of the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Health, as well as research institutes and higher educational institutions.
Joint work with the Institute of Gastroenterology of the Republic of Tajikistan on the development of cryosurgical instruments continued. The developed cryo-instruments for liver surgery were used in more than 200 patients.
Based on the results of joint work on the basis of an agreement between the Tajik State Medical University named after Abuali ibn Sino and the Institute of Nutrition of the Ministry of Industry and New Technologies published one article and received a patent.
Based on the results of joint work, for a series of scientific works on the topic “Development of a new generation of cryosurgery devices and their application for abdominal diseases” in collaboration with the head of the laboratory of physics of low temperatures and superconductivity F.Odinaev was awarded the State Prize of the Republic of Tajikistan named after Abuali ibni Sino in the field of science and technology in 2020 year. Cooperation took place with the Institute of Gastroenterology in the direction of the development of a new generation of cryosurgical devices and their use in operations on the abdominal organs, which provide a continuous supply of liquid nitrogen, a number of inventions of scientists and specialists of the Institute can be noted. The practical implementation of the developed cryosurgical devices in 2020 was carried out in the following medical institutions of the Republic of Tajikistan, where 4 Acts of Implementation were received:
1. Department of liver and pancreas operations of the Institute of Gastroenterology – Republic of Tajikistan – in the treatment of 23 patients;
2. Surgical department of the B. Vogidov Clinical Hospital of Khatlon Region, Bokhtar – for the treatment of 6 patients;
3. Surgical department of the Kulob Clinical Hospital named after A.Haqnazarov, Kulob – for the treatment of 8 patients;
4. Surgical department of abdominal tuberculosis, State Institution “National Center for Tuberculosis, Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery” – for the treatment of 2 patients.
11). The Institute’s contribution to the study and prevention of COVID-19.
During the coronavirus pandemic in the Republic of Tajikistan, we received a task to develop and manufacture a prototype of a ventilator. The main criteria in the development were to create the safest, most affordable, reliable for manufacturing and replication in our conditions. Together with the design bureau, we have developed and manufactured one prototype that meets all medical requirements. Also, tests were carried out at the ambulance station in the intensive care unit, according to the results of which a positive response was received. At the moment, there is a process of filing and registration for obtaining a patent certificate for this device. Also, in connection with the pandemic in 2020, scientists and specialists of the S.U. Umarov Physical-Technical institute NAST contributed to the prevention of the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID – 19). Below are the inventions and the results of the Institute’s work in this area:
- In the process of developing its own reactors for the production of the antiviral agent NAOCL (sodium hypochlorite), the Institute developed a special system for electrical support of electrolysis processes for all developed reactors manufactured by NAOCL at NANT;
- On the part of the NANT Design Bureau, which is located in one of the institute’s laboratories, together with the institute’s specialists, a ventilator has been developed and transferred to the ambulance department for testing.
- Since May 2020, the director and scientific secretary of the institute are members of 2 Interdepartmental Commissions (under the National Academy of Science and the Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Republic of China) to determine the causes and consequences of coronavirus disease (COVID – 19), where a number of proposals have been developed and submitted to solve this problem.
- By means of computer modeling, the institute developed a model for the spread of the disease COVID – 19 and was proposed to the National Anthropological Institute and the Interdepartmental Commission.
12). Activities of the Dissertation Council. At the Physical-Technical Institute named after S.U. Umarov of the National Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan, there are two Dissertation Councils. Dissertation Council 6D.KOA-031 Higher Attestation Commission of the Republic of Tajikistan under the President of the Republic of Tajikistan on the basis of the Physical-Technical Institute named after S. U. Umarov National Academy of Sciences and the Dissertation Council DM 737.004.10 of the Higher Attestation Commission of the Russian Federation on the basis of the Tajik National University and the Physical-Technical Institute named after S.U. Umarov of the NAST.
Dissertation Council 6D.KOA-031 for the defense of dissertations of doctors of philosophy (PhD), doctors in the specialty in the areas of 6D060400 – Physics and 6D071700 – Thermal Power Engineering was created by order No. 72 of the Chairman of the Higher Attestation Commission under the President of the Republic of Tajikistan dated 06.12.2017.
The composition of the 6D.KOA-031 Dissertation Council consists of 21 council members – 15 doctors of science and 6 candidates of science. Of the doctors of science, 8 are employees of the Institute of VA of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, 7 are employees of TNU. Of the candidates of sciences, 4 are employees of the Institute, 2 are employees of the Tajik Technical Institute named after academician M. Osimi.
The Chairman of the Dissertation Council 6D.KOA-031 is Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Academician Kh.Kh. Muminov.
According to the order of the Chairman of the Higher Attestation Commission, under the President of the Republic of Tajikistan from 02.03.2020, No. 38, Dissertation Council 6D.KOA-031 has the right to accept and consider dissertations in the following scientific specialties:
- 6D060400 – Physics (04/01/07 – Condensed matter physics, 04/01/15 – Physics and technology of nanostructures, atomic and molecular physics, 04/01/16 – Physics of the atomic nucleus and elementary particles).
- 6D071700 – Heat power engineering (05.14.08 – Power plants based on renewable energy types).
- 6D061200 – Meteorology (25.00.30 – Meteorology, climatology, agrometeorology).
In 2020, the 6D.KOA-031 Dissertation Council held 4 meetings – 2 defenses of dissertations. A relatively small number of meetings is associated with the forced interruption of the activity of dissertation councils from 05.05.2020 to 10.08.2020. by order of the Higher Attestation Commission under the President of the Republic of Tajikistan, in connection with the pandemic.
13). Defense of the dissertation research by the staff of the Institute. Соли 2020 кормандони зерини Институт рисолаҳои илмии худро дифоъ намуданд:
In 2020, the following employees of the institute defended their PhD theses:
1. Idibegzoda Halimakhon Idibeg: 01.04.07- “Physics of Condensed Matter”.
2. Odinaev Fatkhullo Rakhmatovich: 02.00.04 – “Physical Chemistry”.
3. Davlatmamadova Sa’bik Shomamadovna: 01.04.07 – “Physics of Condensed Matter”.
14). State prizes and awards.
This year, 5 employees of the S.U.Umarov Physical–Technical Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan received the State awards “Honored Labor Medal” and “Badge of Excellence in Science and Education of Tajikistan”.
04. 09. 2020 2 of the employees of the Physicotechnical Institute, consisting of the authors F. Rahimi, S. M. Amadzoda, Kh.Kh. Muminov, S. Sh. Akhmedov, F. R. Odinaev. For the cycle of works “Development of a new generation of cryosurgical instruments and their use in abdominal surgery” were awarded the State Avicena Award of the Republic of Tajikistan in the field of science and technology.
1. Kh.Kh. Muminov – Head of the Department of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology.
2. F.R. Odinaev – Head of the Laboratory for Low Temperature Physics and Superconductivity.
04.09.2020. 2 employees of the Institute were awarded the State Prize “Honored Labor Medal”:
1. S.F. Abdulloev – Head of the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics.
2. F.R. Odinaev – Head of the Laboratory for Low Temperature Physics and Superconductivity.
On 14.04. 2020, 2 employees of the Institute were awarded “Badge of Excellence in Science and Education of Tajikistan”:
1. R.A. Korieva – Leading Researcher of the Laboratory of Crystal Physics.
2. S. Yunusova – Leading Researcher in the Theoretical Physics Sector.
15). Moments from the life of the institute in 2020.