The scientific activities of the laboratory of atmospheric physics

by usto

THE MAIN COURSES OF THE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

  • The study of the processes of formation, distribution and deposition of aerosol pollution.
  • Statistical analysis of the effect of aerosol pollution of atmosphere, resulting from dust storms, on climate change.
  • Statistical analysis of the effect of dust storms (dust haze) on crop yields.
  • Recommendations for reducing the negative impact of aerosol pollution on the regional ecosystem.
  • Theoretical and experimental study of thermal nonlinearity in phase transitions by the method of gas-microphone registration of the photoacoustic signal.

The main activities are focused on research in the field of atmospheric physics, ecology, climatology, and photoacoustics. The laboratory carried out studies of the optical and microphysical characteristics, as well as the chemical properties of aerosol pollution of atmosphere, resulting from dust storms in southern Tajikistan. The observation showed that temperature effects the aerosol pollution of atmosphere during dust storms. The radiation parameters of the atmosphere were studied. The mass concentration and distribution functions of aerosol pollution during a dust storm were investigated.

Samples of dust aerosol and soil were studied using IR spectroscopy, laser fluorimetry, photoacoustic spectroscopy, and diffuse reflection. The changes in the meteorological parameters of the atmosphere under arid conditions (Repetak, Bayramali, Termez) and sub arid zones (Kurgantyube, Dushanbe) in 2005-2018  was analyzed. The number of dust storms and dust hazes was determined, and their duration in selected zones. The temperature effects for different dust haze scenarios were studied.

The microphysical mechanism of rapid deposition of aerosol under conditions of surface inversion is established, which is associated with the formation of convective cells by the double diffusion mechanism. It is proved that the anomalies of optical transparency, moisture content and particle size in a dusty atmosphere are associated with the condensation of water vapor in convective cells arising in a non-uniformly stratified atmosphere. The perturbation theory was formulated, which allowed determining the nonlinear components of the photoacoustic (PA) signal, due to the influence of thermal nonlinearity and the temperature dependence of the thermophysical magnitudes of strongly absorbing and low heat conducting systems on the parameters of the photoacoustic (PA) signal. A theoretical consideration has been made of the effect of a temperature-sensitive variable, due to the temperature dependence of thermal and optical values on the parameters of the primary harmonic’s PA signal — thermally thick opaque media.

PROJECTS AND GRANTS

Progress:
Defended dissertations:
2 doctoral dissertations – Madvaliev U., Abdullaev S.F.,
3 candidate dissertations – Sharifov J.M., Maslov V.A., Kodirova X.

Laboratory staff actively participated in the International Expeditions for the Study of the Arctic in 1986-1987, in the gas-aerosol International Planetary Experiment at the Sceintific Ship “Academic Koroleva” in 1987. The laboratory staff also organized and conducted the Soviet-American experiment on the study of arid aerosol in Tajikistan in September 1989.

The laboratory staff organized an international conference in Dushanbe with the participation of scientists from Central Asia and Russia in May 2012 with the support of the ISTC.

Laboratory staff actively participated in organizing and conducting the International Conference on Central Asian Dust (CADUC) in collaboration with the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (Leipzig, Germany) held on 08-12 April, 2019 in Dushanbe, with the participation of more than 80 scientists from 17 countries with the financial support of the Volkswagen (Germany).

Atmopheric Physics Laboratory (APL) staff S.F. Abdullaev, B.I. Nazarov, V.A. Maslov was awarded the prize of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan named after Academician S.U. Umarov for 2019 for a series of monographs on atmospheric physics published in 2015-2017.

For the study of the aerosol component of the atmosphere, IR and photoacoustic spectroscopy, laser fluorimetry, diffuse reflection, elemental and isotope analysis, as well as data from the AERONET, HYPSLIT, MODIS sites are used. To solve the problems associated with the long-term continuous monitoring of PM2.5 aerosol particles in the atmosphere and the accumulation of an aerosol composition database in Dushanbe, an automatic low-volume sampler MVS6D D-10623 (Berlin, Germany Kleinfiltergerät) was installed at the APL atmospheric monitoring site Physical Technical Institute (PTI) named after S. U. Umarov of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan in Dushanbe (=380 33′N, λ=68047′E, h=869 above sea level). Sampling of samples of aerosol particles with a sampler is carried out at a speed of 2.3 l / min, in standard Whatman paper filters (diameter 47 mm, pore size meets the standards of the European Union), with a 24 hour collection time interval every three days.

Laboratory research materials were included in the reports of the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics; PTI named after S.U. Umarov for 1986-2015 and in the reports of the International Science and Technology Center (project T-1688 and project T-2076). The laboratory successfully completed 7 budget projects (1986-2015), 2 ISTC projects (2009-2016), the Presidential Foundation for Basic Research Project (2014-2016) and the Joint Tajik-German Dust Aerosol Research Project with the Leibniz Tropospheric Research Institute (Germany) Central Asia (CADEX) (2014-2016).

PROJECTS, GRANTS, CONTRACTS

Laboratory staff participated in the tasks of the following projects:

  1. ISTC Project T-1688. The theme of the project is “Study of the effect of aerosol pollution of atmosphere resulting from dust storms on climate change”. The project was approved for funding by the European Union. The project duration was 36 months from May 1, 2009. The results of the project in Tajikistan are available on the AERONET NASA website. The project was devoted to the study of aerosol pollution of the atmosphere and its impact on climate change.
  2. Project T-2076. The theme of the project is “Monitoring of dust storm isotope migration in the South-Central part of Tajikistan and tailing dumps of uranium ore processing waste in Northern Tajikistan”. The project was funded by the United States. The project lasted 36 months from October 01, 2013. The project is dedicated to the research of the isotopic, elemental and molecular composition of aerosol and soils of Tajikistan.

Brief information on the tasks and results of ISTC projects can be obtained on the ISTC website: http://www.istc.in 

  • CADEX project. In 2014, a joint research agreement was signed between the Physical Technical Institute named after S.U. Umarov of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan and the Leibniz Institute of Tropospheric Research (Leibzig, Germany) within the Central Asian DUST Experiment –CADEX project. In the execution of the project on the territory of the atmospheric monitoring site LFA FTI named after S. U. Umarov of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan installed a three-wave POLLY lidar and carried out continuous laser sensing of the surface layer of the atmosphere from 1.04.2015 to 1.10.2017.

Detailed information about the project is available on the website:
http://www.tropos.de/en/research/projects-infrastructures-technology/research-projects/cadex-home/
http://polly.rsd.tropos.de/lidar/lidarzeit.php?Ort=Dushanbe&Anzeigejahr=2015&lambda=532&lidar=PollyXT_TROPOS
http://polly.rsd.tropos.de/lidar/bilder.php?lidar=PollyXT_TROPOS&lambda=532&Jahr=2015&Monat=4&Tag=3&Ort=Dushanbe#bildanker

4. The project of the Presidential Foundation for Basic Research on the theme “Elemental composition of soils of the zone of state unitary enterprise “Tajik aluminum Company” (2014-2016)

5. The project of the Presidential Foundation for Basic Research on the theme  «Study of pollution of medicinal plants with heavy metals» (2019-2020)

6. IAEA project

6.1. IAEA project – EVT1705868 RER1008 TC (2012-2013)

6.2. IAEA project – EVT1705868 RER1013 TC (2014-2015)

6.3.IAEA project – EVT1705868 RER1015 TC (2016-2017)

6.4.IAEA project – EVT1705868 RER7011 TC (2018-2019)

6.5.IAEA project – EVT1705868 RER7012 TC (2020-2021)

Scientific cooperation of the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of the Physical Technical Institute named after S.U. Umarov Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan:

Local cooperation:

Bohtar State University named after Nosir Khusrav

Khujand State University named after academician B. Gafurov

Kulyab State University named after A. Rudaki

Dushanbe Branch of  M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University

Faculty of  Physics Tajik National University

Geophysical Service of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan

Meteorological Agency of the Republic of Tajikistan

Nuclear Safety Agency of the Republic of Tajikistan

The international cooperation:

1.National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center AERONET Network (USA), коллаборатор Brent N. Holben , (AERONET Project Head, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center AERONET Network (USA)

2.LOA-PHOTONS group Universite des Sciences et Technologies Lille Laboratoire d’Optique Atmospherique Prof. Philippe Goloub (France),

3. Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS)

4. Key Laboratory for Semi-Arid Climate Change of the Ministry of Education 

and College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University 
5. Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

6.Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Beijing, China 

7. State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Science Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources and CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences  and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (UCAS)

Chinese Academy of Sciences

8. The project ACTRIS-2 Integrating Activities (IA) has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No 654109). ACTRIS-2 started on 1 May 2015 for a period of 4 years after the successful completion of the first ACTRIS IA in FP7 project (2011)

9. College of Optical Science and Engineering Zhejiang University, China

10. In the framework of the IAEA project – EVT1705868 RER7011 TC, aerosol sampling of RM 2.5 continues in collaboration with:

1.Vienna International Centre

2.National Center of Scientific Research “Demokritos”.Attica, PARASKEVI GREECE

3. Institute of Applied Nuclear Physics; University of Tirana ALBANIA 

4. Republic Hydrometeorological Institute BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA 

5. National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology; Bulgarian Academy of Sciences  SOFIA BULGARIA

6. Ministry of Environmental, Physical Planning and Construction  ZAGREB CROATIA 

7. Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health (IMI) ZAGREB CROATIA 

8. The Cyprus Institute ,NICOSIA CYPRUS 

9. Institute of Nuclear Research – Hungary(Atomki) DEBRECEN HUNGARY

10. Environmental Protection Agency VILNIUS LITHUANIA

11. Agency for Environmental Protection (EPA); Ministry of Tourism and Environmental Protection PODGORICA MONTENEGRO

12. Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism PODGORICA MONTENEGRO

13. Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning NORTH MACEDONIA

14. AGH University of Science and Technology; Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science KRAKOW POLAND

15. Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear BOBADELA-LRS PORTUGAL

16. Environmental Agency CHISINAU REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

17. National Environmental Protection Agency BUCHAREST ROMANIA 

18. Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences BELGRADE SERBIA

19. Jozef Stefan Institute LJUBLJANA SLOVENIA